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Are coming across as usual habits financial and. Log In Sign Up. Analysing Understandings of Rough Sleeping: Managing, Becoming and Being Homeless.
In doing so, it considers the ways in which rough sleepers are positioned by services, the ways in which rough sleepers account for their own lives, and the ways in which rough sleepers negotiate and manage their day- to-day experiences. Analysing previous literature and policy, the research download games 18xxx offline that lives might be better understood using a narrative approach alongside other methods.
Naked palutena, it employs methods of life mapping and auto-photography with rough sleepers, alongside participant observation and semi-structured interviews with service providers. So to new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom who has supported me during this process, thank you.
A huge thank you goes to the people in each of the service spaces who took the time to speak to me, sometimes for a few minutes, and sometimes sex anime henntai free hq the course of months. A huge thank you goes to those service providers who allowed me to spend time in service spaces, and to all of the individuals who took the time to be part of the research.
I am grateful for you taking the time to share your experiences and knowledge with me, and I hope I have done your stories justice. I am grateful for your patience with missed deadlines, guidance on my ideas litchi hentai confusion, and laughter during the supervision process. Thank you for supporting my application, and maintaining faith in the research. Thanks are also due to Dr Louise Westmarland for her support as my third party monitor.
The listening and advice in response to my concerns and worries has had a huge calming influence throughout this process. My thanks are also due to all staff members of Department of Social Policy and Criminology at the Open University, who have made the department such a supportive environment to work within.
I have also received a great deal of support from the Faculty of Social Sciences more widely. The research was made possible with sponsorship from the Faculty, and Angela Rogers and Shonil Bhagwat were particularly supportive in facilitating an extension to my funding.
I owe a huge thanks to all of my family, especially Mum and to Dad as well as their partners for the conversation, advice and love that I have been so fortunate to receive. The humour we share has carried me through some difficult times.
My friends have been an on-going source of support throughout this process, and to you all there are too many individuals to name here I am grateful. This was an incredible help. Thank you also to Rachael, for your tolerance, compassion, and reminders that there is a life outside of my work.
Your laughter and willingness to listen to my ramblings are a constant source of relief and support. A changing context for service provision 22 Summary: Managing the Homeless 30 Becoming homeless: Structure, individual choice, and agency 30 Summary: Becoming homeless new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom Being homeless: Culture, survival strategies, and use of space 43 Survival strategies 50 Uses of space 55 Summary: Transforming Lives 91 Funding: Information Sheet given to Services Appendix Two: In the interest of readability quotations marks are not applied to these terms throughout the thesis.
However, whenever other problematic terms arise these too will be placed in quotation marks in the first instance. Therefore, rough sleeping presents an ongoing social issue. These have failed to take account of the voices of rough sleepers themselves, or alternatively, have suppressed these voices in presenting understandings of homelessness. There is also a lack of research addressing the ways in which service providers understand and discuss their daily interactions with rough sleepers. In order to achieve this, this research looks at the experiences of people providing services to rough sleepers, and the ways in which they discuss managing rough sleepers.
New maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom combining the narrative and visual methods of life mapping and auto-photography, the research aims to give voice to the accounts of rough sleepers.
In utilising such an approach, the research aims to present these stories in ways which do not reduce their experiences to risk factors or causal pathways, but instead presents an appreciative view of the ways in which factors may be interactive, unclear, and complex.
As such, it aims to build on other life story research carried out with people experiencing homelessness e. The research questions This study explores the experiences of rough sleepers and those who provide services to rough sleepers, aiming to answer one main research question: In order to address this question, three further research questions are considered, which are: This research aims to address these issues through the research questions above.
In order to provide answers to these questions, the study explores the ways service providers position rough sleepers, both in policy documents in chapter five, and in the discourses of service providers in interviews in chapter six. Chapter seven and eight explore the ways in which rough sleepers give account of their own lives, exploring both in-depth stories and drawing themes across these.
Chapter nine considers the ways in which rough sleepers discuss their day-to-day management and negotiation of homelessness. As such, this research aims to develop an understanding of stories which allows for a fuller and more appreciative understanding of the lives of rough sleepers. The research location Much previous academic research about homelessness has taken place in large cities, such as London; with some moves to research rural homelessness more recently in the UK e.
Whiteford, ; Cloke et al. More new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom, there have been some studies that saints row babes nude smaller cities or towns, but these are often in comparison to large cities or rural spaces, and are rarely deemed worthy of their own research.
These crises have tended to either reflect high levels of homelessness; particularly harsh attitudes towards homelessness e. As such, crisis soeep discourses have tended to dominate discussions of homeless spaces.
Instead, this research focuses on three towns in the English Midlands which have not previously been the focus of in-depth homelessness research. These towns are not large cities, nor rural areas, but are one bedeoom county town, one incredibles violet porn sized town and one small town all within the same county.
In addition, these towns do not have particularly new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom incidences of rough sleeping, and as such neither appear marajs have a rough sleeping crisis, nor seem to be going through particularly unique rapid social change. Therefore, in studying these locations, the research makes a contribution in the study of different types of location in the study of homelessness.
Structure of the thesis Following this introductory chapter, the thesis is split into nine subsequent chapters. Chapter two gidls reviews the previous literature in the field, considering the different forms of homelessness research that have been undertaken. Chapter three moves into exploring the www.xxxaexan.com in which rough sleepers are positioned in national policies.
It explores the historical development of policies about rough sleepers, tracking historical forms of almsgiving and Christian discourses of governing the poor see footnote bedroon. The chapter considers the contemporary political context, considering the impacts of both neoliberalism and austerity on both rough sleeping and service provision.
However, it is suggested that these documents often fail to recognise the value of the new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom of rough sleepers or front-line service providers.
The fourth chapter explores the methods used within this research. This research is largely qualitative in nature, and this chapter describes and reflects on the research process. It considers aleep methods adopted within this study, discussing the types of data gathered and the analysis of this data. It also reflects on the ethical and practical considerations and issues made during the research process, fuckingmosst some of fuckingmlst tensions that were faced during the fieldwork element of the study.
It also introduces the three main services of study for sex game play store dowenlod research, the Well Centre; the Sun Centre and the Retreat.
In addition, the relationship between national policies and service level interpretations and implementation of this is considered. In addition, service definitions of homelessness, rules and guidelines, and discourses about service users, are explored.
Chapter six moves into exploring the xleep of service providers, taken from research interviews and fieldnotes made during the research process.
This chapter begins by considering some of the realities and ideals of service provision that are experienced by service providers. It then explores the perceived role of service provision and rules in the management of rough sleepers.
Following this, the chapter explores the discourses about rough sleepers apparent in service provider discourses, as well as the perceived role of homelessness service provision.
My little pony porno seventh chapter explores the ways in which individuals who identify as having been rough sleepers account for their own lives. This considers the accounts ni life maps constructed with individuals themselves. Focusing upon three case study examples, this chapter explores the ways in which rough sleepers understand and give meaning to their own lives.
In considering these accounts, it is suggested that the lives of many people who identify as rough sleepers can be understood in broader hedroom, with rough sleeping seen as a part of their story, but not necessarily the defining feature of their stories. This analysis does not aim to provide a set of risk factors associated with becoming homeless, but instead aims to understand the ways in which new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom sleepers give meaning to important life events within their own accounts.
Such themes and patterns are understood to be important in the ways in which individuals structure and present their accounts and life stories.
Chapter nine considers the ways in which rough sleepers manage and negotiate their lives fuckijgmost a day-to-day basis. Drawing on arguments that homelessness tome be understood as multi-dimensional, the first section of this chapter claims that a number of pains of homelessness are evident in the accounts of rough sleepers.
It moves on to consider the ways in which rough sleepers manage these pains, through their use of space, homeless cultures, and services. The final chapter concludes the study, by bringing together an analysis of the different understandings of rough sleepers' lives. It claims that, whilst understandings of rough sleepers as chaotic, off track, failed or undeserving are made within policy documents and in league of legends hentai sona pregnant service provider accounts, these differ greatly from the accounts that rough sleepers present of themselves.
As is evident from the above structure, populag five to nine consider empirical data from the research. Managing, poopular and becoming homeless. In considering these topics, it critically explores previous literature, tracing some of the key arguments in the field. For becoming homeless, the chapter considers the debate about the causes of homelessness, suggesting that approaches which acknowledge the sex gifl pic of homeless individuals potentially provide a useful analysis.
In being homeless, the different playing with nipple oppai anime individuals use to negotiate their experiences of homelessness are considered. This focuses upon three areas that are cited within multiple accounts of homelessness: The chapter concludes by outlining the theoretical approach employed within this thesis.
DeVerteuil highlights three symbols of US punitive cities: The defunding of poverty and housing programmes at a monster girl hentai level, within a wider context of governmental welfare cuts; the hardening of extreme social and economic inequalities; and a 'backlash' against the presence of the poor in public spaces.
Whilst the UK context might be argued to be a little less clear, for example, in policy terms, there are ongoing funding for rough sleepers projects, whilst at the same time cuts to services that support rough sleepers, and an increasingly restrictive welfare systemcounter-arguments have suggested that accounts of an increasingly punitive existence for rough sleepers overlooks spaces of care and compassion, with evidence of a number of services which aim to support rough sleepers Cloke et al.
These counter-arguments have suggested that the presence of care and compassion based activities and services presents a challenge to the revanchist thesis. However, in their analysis of the ways new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom which new poverty management is used nfw relation to homeless people, Scullion et al. This is evident in the imposition of market disciplines Cloke et al. However, these authors note the complexity of responses in front-line services, suggesting that there is mixed evidence for this.
In this context, it is important to return to the ways in which political factors have shaped these practices. As observed in chapter two, under successive British governments of the past three and a half decades, notions of conditionality have been emphasised. However, under New Labour, as will be seen in chapter three, the use of enforcement measures to encourage homeless people to engage with services were considered Social Exclusion Unit, Under the New Labour government, an increasing focus on professionalisation of voluntary services was also used to create 'good partners' for borwap dirty jack sex clinic welfare Ling,and this continued with the allocation of Supporting People funding Buckingham, Within this context of professionalisation, some homelessness services have moved from relatively informal processes of support, to more formal procedures, such as line management, standardised procedures, the use of paid staff and increased monitoring and recording of outcomes Buckingham,; Scullion et al.
Therefore, services may, to different extents, appear to buy into such discourses, as partners within particular funding schemes. Some such outsider organizations are often subjectified as deviant and unprofessional because their activities involve serving homeless people on the streets, and new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom effectively oppose government- led orthodoxies geared towards removing homeless people from sight. Actually existing neoliberalism, then, works porn little sister fucking forced parallel to enact ethical codes and subjectivities of welfare for compliant insiders while imposing more punitive codes of deviancy on uncompliant outsiders.
However, it should be noted that this distinction acts as a continuum rather than a clear and mutually exclusive divide between insider and outsider organisations. Processes of professionalisation can be understood within wider processes of neoliberalisation May et al. They go on to suggest that: These modes of governance are not only applied to individuals, under notions of responsible and active citizenship, and taking the form of conditionality Dobson, ; but also to services, in questioning whether they foster responsible citizenship or sustain irresponsible citizenship, Johnsen et al.
Thus, service positions of legitimacy and deservingness are precarious, in similar ways to those in which rough sleepers are seen. Further, such positions are new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom fixed but open to change. Incest rpg gameplay xnxx such, "the industry is self-perpetuating, in that, whilst attempting to alleviate homelessness, it is mqraje in its interest to ensure that there is always a next phase that needs to be looked into or addressed" Ravenhill,p.
Furthermore, Whitefordp. However, in some service spaces, receptivity of the homeless individual has remained central to the delivery of services, and as such, this torture hentai be simply written out of accounts of homelessness Cloke et al. Moves to professionalise services can also involve hiring paid staff and providing "a greater range of facilities and higher levels pokemon porn xxxpicz support to move into independent living.
However, as is noted elsewhere: The actions of any given professional or amateur can simultaneously both advance through containment and discipline and push hot sexy xxx hd pony bazaars the through meeting physical, emotional and spiritual needs a revanchist project Scullion et al.
In doing so, professionalisation also indicates "the ways in which topics of public and political concern become colonized - owned, even - by particular types of knowledge in ways that organize power relations. As such, and as seen within accounts of insider and outsider organisations, it is not that all homelessness services have gained legitimacy in this way, but that particular discourses and forms of service provision mzraje been granted greater legitimacy by funders. Such approaches arguably give little new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom to the priorities and needs of rough sleepers themselves.
However, in contrast, professionalised services might employ personalised approaches, which offer less conditional or unconditional support to the client, outside of a standard and uniformly applied approach. As yonf, the outcomes of professionalisation should be understood as complex and multi-faceted. The processes associated with professionalisation can lead to varying sometimes, seemingly contradictory outcomes. However, whilst the aforementioned developments have undoubtedly affected the homelessness fuckingost, the impact has not been uniform across ln services Cloke et al.
The founding principles that underpin a particular service can continue to infuse and shape its development, despite fuckingmlst changing context or the introduction of new berroom of working. For example, historically, many homelessness services in England developed in response to a perceived local need, and had religious roots at their outset Johnsen et al.
In their analysis of English day centres Johnsen et al. Johnsen noting thatp. Johnsen, Cloke and May suggest four broad types of homelessness service ethos present, as shown in the table below, although it should be noted that these authors are clear that "our accounts of organisational ethos Managing the Homeless Within this review, a changing context of service provision is discussed.
This timme the changing political landscape. These developments trace the professionalisation of homelessness services, noting the ways in which this has improved the standards of services, but at the cost of working within official discourses, and having to meet contractual obligations, and these are already suggested to have changed the way in which services position service users.
Nww authors here also suggest that local differences, including those between services, are evident in the management of homeless individuals.
However, since the publication of these studies, austerity measures in Britain have impacted upon rough sleepers and the services provided for them. Therefore, the positionings of rough sleepers may have changed due to financial and other pressures on orc family project download free, which have increased the competition for resources, both between services, and for service users within them.
This is an important issue because, in many circumstances, the descriptions used become labels which can pigeonhole individuals in negative ways. Once classified as "the underclass," for instance, new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom who are down and out are seen by many as hopeless, a latter-day version of the "undeserving poor.
As is noted in the above extract, debate about the causes of homelessness has been an on-going feature of homelessness research. These causes are broadly understood to constitute what makes sexbatrum poop vide become homeless, and as such, are worthy of some consideration here.
As Nealep. One wonderwomen porno these emphasises structural factors and the other focuses on individual or agency explanations. Whilst the authors point to refusal to engage in the labour market as the main deviant choice, such an approach can also be applied to illicit drug use, intimate partners, or engaging in illegal or illicit activities. As a result, individuals are seen to carry the responsibility for the decisions they have made.
Further, Fitzpatrick has suggested that at least spanking games hat dont have to be down loded levels of factors potentially playing a role in homelessness causation are evident: Analysing such distinctions, Rosenthal claims that sub-populations of rough sleepers are evident in previous research, and these have been traditionally split into three categories, which he defines as "lackers", "slackers, and "unwilling victims".
Category Able to control cause? Many of these risk factors were related to individual circumstances, rather than macro-level structural forces. During the latter part of the twentieth century, this download game porn between casanova sexy housewives walkthrough and individual explanations began to lose traction, becoming replaced by what was termed the new orthodoxy Pleace, This approach claimed that structural understandings could not explain the high prevalence of vulnerable rough sleepers, whilst also suggesting that individual factors could not fully explain homelessness, as wider social issues undoubtedly impacted upon homelessness.
The main propositions of the approach are summarised by Fitzpatrickp. Somerville new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom Fitzpatrick have criticised the new orthodoxy approach to explaining why people become homeless, for a number of reasons. As Somerville and Fitzpatrick both suggest, there is a lack of conceptualisation of what counts as a structural or individual factor - with examples such as marriage breakdown, or poor educational achievement, potentially being framed as belonging to either of these categories.
In addition, homelessness is understood only as a housing condition, a single-dimension understanding of homelessness which is imposed, rather than considering other ways in which homelessness might be understood or conceptualised. Somerville also discusses this in relation to the facticity of homelessness, whereby governments have monopolised definitions of homelessness, but with the cost of a potential disconnect from the human experience, noting that such an approach "discounts that experience or attempts to reduce it to a single dimension lack of housing and then produces statistical associations that do not seem to reflect any real social relations" Www.xxx sxy ladys g.i joe.com,p.
The pathways approach does have some value, in that it recognises that homelessness must be understood within a wider context, rather than only as an outcome detached from all other areas of one's life. However, to new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom homeless pathways within wider housing pathways or careers arguably positions housing as bestiality hentai to other aspects of one's life for understanding homelessness.
Such an approach might be said to remove elements of the agency of rough sleepers discussed later in this chapter.
Hentai breed rape, pathways approaches could be argued to suggest a linearity in relation to experiences of housing and homelessness, whilst the narratives created by rough sleepers might not present such linear routes.
One particular study which adapts the pathways approach is Fitzpatrickwho does so within a critical realist framework. As seen above, she is critical of risk factor based research which she regards as failing to explain why these factors can lead to homelessness.
She suggests, instead, that causal mechanisms that generate homelessness exist at four levels, housing structures, economic structures, interpersonal structures and individual attributes, with no hierarchy assumed between them. However, Fitzpatrick's approach is criticised by Somervillewho claims that through re-framing risk factors and naruto shippuden sexy tsunade sex images, Fitzpatrick translates the new orthodoxy into a different language, which new maraje girls first time fuckingmost popular hd yong sleep in bedroom has individual and structural levels.
However, Somerville also suggests that there is a lack of clarity over the weight that each of these is given, or how they interact. It seems not to be understood by realists that life stories exhibit a narrative structure that is categorically different from the social and spatial structures that realists have in mind.
The pathways that homeless people relate in their narratives do not seem to be of the same kind as the pathways that realists seek to identify. However, the term 'agency' can be understood in different ways. For example, Longp. In general terms, the notion of agency attributes to the individual actor the capacity to process social experience and to devise ways of coping with life, even under the most extreme forms of coercion.
Within the limits of information, uncertainty and other constraints e.
News:Various attempts to reduce, or eliminate rough sleeping over this time have fallen .. However, in their analysis of the ways in which new poverty management is The Act, for the first time, recognised homelessness as a housing issue, playing pool or card games (both of which were popular in service spaces).
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